Geographical Information System

Making decisions based on geography is basic to human thinking. Where shall we go, what will it be

like, and what shall we do when we get there are applied to the simple event of going to the store or

to the major event of launching a bathysphere into the ocean’s depths. By understanding geography

and people's relationship to location, we can make informed decisions about the way we live on our

planet. A geographic information system (GIS) is a technological tool for comprehending geography

and making intelligent decisions.

GIS organizes geographic data so that a person reading a map can select data necessary for a

specifi c project or task. A thematic map has a table of contents that allows the reader to add layers

of information to a basemap of real-world locations. For example, a social analyst might use the

basemap of Eugene, Oregon, and select datasets from the U.S. Census Bureau to add data layers

to a map that shows residents’ education levels, ages, and employment status. With an ability to

combine a variety of datasets in an infi nite number of ways, GIS is a useful tool for nearly every fi eld

of knowledge from archaeology to zoology.

A good GIS program is able to process geographic data from a variety of sources and integrate

it into a map project. Many countries have an abundance of geographic data for analysis, and

governments often make GIS datasets publicly available. Map fi le databases often come included

with GIS packages; others can be obtained from both commercial vendors and government

agencies. Some data is gathered in the fi eld by global positioning units that attach a location

coordinate (latitude and longitude) to a feature such as a pump station.

GIS maps are interactive. On the computer screen, map users can scan a GIS map in any direction,

zoom in or out, and change the nature of the information contained in the map. They can choose

whether to see the roads, how many roads to see, and how roads should be depicted. Then

they can select what other items they wish to view alongside these roads such as storm drains,

gas lines, rare plants, or hospitals. Some GIS programs are designed to perform sophisticated

calculations for tracking storms or predicting erosion patterns. GIS applications can be embedded

into common activities such as verifying an address.

From routinely performing work-related tasks to scientifi cally exploring the complexities of our world,

GIS gives people the geographic advantage to become more productive, more aware, and more

responsive citizens of planet Earth.


GIS for Mining

Mineral exploration geoscientists use diverse types of datasets to search for new economic

deposits. Data sources vary from geologic maps, hyperspectral airborne and multispectral

satellite images, and geophysical images to databases in many formats. GIS is an ideal platform

to bring them together in a geoscientist’s computer and deliver meaningful outcomes.

GIS is now able to help geoscientists in many aspects of their activities: data collection,

management, analysis, and reporting. Field geologists can now capture fi eld data electronically

using ArcPad and global positioning system (GPS) receivers. Other datasets may be

downloaded from the Internet. All of these datasets can be integrated, manipulated, and

analyzed using GIS.

Pipelines, electric lines, roads, ramps, and other mining facilities change frequently. Engineers

and operations staff use GIS for facility planning applications. Keeping track of existing

infrastructure and integrating it with the mine plan and block models can be achieved with GIS.

GIS can also be used to integrate recent survey data with block models or mine design data

from other mining software packages such as GeoSoft, Vulcan, MineSight, SURPAC Range, or

Mining Visualization System (MVS).

Most mining information, including fi nancial and asset information, has some sort of spatial

component that can be represented in map form. Management and mineral economists are

using GIS in their evaluation of corporate and competitor assets. Mining companies also use

GIS to actively monitor the environmental impacts that may be caused by their activities and

conduct reclamation.

Various types of geologic datasets, such as geophysical images, geochemistry, geologic maps,

radiometric measurements, boreholes, and mineral deposits, can be displayed, interrogated,

and analyzed simultaneously using GIS

Minerals Development Department
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Abdul Wali Khan Complex, Civil Secretariat, Peshawar
Phone # 091-9223553